# Have you ever thought What exactly is Radio Frequency Communication

Radio frequency (often abbreviated as, RF), can be described as any frequency within the electromagnetic spectrum with radio wave propagation that lie in the range extending from about 3 kHz to 300 GHz; this includes the frequencies that are used for communications or the radar signals. That said, you should know that RF generally refers to electrical rather than the mechanical oscillations.

RF communication utilizes radio waves rather than wires to exchange signals, and this is where the term “wireless communication,” comes from. RF modules generally use frequencies to distinguish the different radio signals, therefore, in order for the RF modules to communicate, they have to be operating on the same exact frequency. That said, you should know that radio frequency is normally measured in units known as hertz (abbreviated as Hz), which represent number of cycles/second when the radio wave(s) is transmitted. 1 hertz (Hz) equals 1 cycle/second, and 1 megahertz (abbreviated as, MHz) equals 1 million cycles/second.

Frequency normally refers to the oscillation rate of the radio waves. It can also refer to how close together or far apart the waves are. When the radio waves are too far apart, that is known as low frequency, and when the radio waves are close together, that is known as high frequency. That said, you should know that radio frequency propagation happens at speed of light, and doesn’t need any medium (such as air) in order for it to travel. Radio frequency waves occur naturally from lightning, the sun flares, and even from stars which radiate radio frequency waves as the get older. However, people usually communicate with man made radio waves which oscillate at various select frequencies.

The man made radio frequency waves are produced by oscillating current for a certain number of times, and radiating it off the conductor (which is referred to as the antenna), into an empty space (this is the space that’s occupied by air and not the outer space), as electromagnetic radio waves. The RF signals are received and sent using conductors via the phenomenon that’s called the skin effect, where radio frequency current latches itself and then flows through the conductors’ surface; this effect is actually the basis and the core of radio technology.

The best thing about RF communication, is that it’s omnipresent (that is to mean it’s all around us). It plays a crucial role in many of the communications systems which we depend on a daily basis, such as fire and police radio systems, TV and radio broadcasts, and satellite communications. Cordless phones, cellphones, Wireless internet (Wi Fi), and Bluetooth also operate in the radio frequency spectrum. In addition to that, there are other appliances outside of the communications field that use RF. They include; microwave ovens, garage door openers, among others. Some wireless devices such as TV remote controls, cordless computer mice, computer keyboards, and even two way radios also operate using RF frequency.

Two way radios are based on the RF frequency and they perform group communication using minimum radio frequency channel resources. This is to mean that if all the users are in the same location or area (most of the time), you will only need a single channel resource in order to talk to them. By using RF, two way radios have the capability of facilitating âone to manyâ group communication (which is also known as a group call), very efficiently. By efficient, I mean that 1 user can communicate/talk to 1, 5, 10, 100 or even 1000’s of users at a go. The 2 way radio user doesnât need to keep on repeating the same message if he/she needs to convey to many users.

# Software Defined Radio (SDR) Market Forecast By End-use Industry 2014-2020

We are seeing a monumental movement in the radio communication industry, as this very technical article shows the transition from hardware to software within the radio communication industry is just around the corner. With 3G and 4G providing Data and Voice Comms covering large distances, RF communication will find it hard to compete, the simple answer seems to be Tetra, but is that long term? There will always be a need for point to point communications, but larger comms infrastructures could possibly be managed in a different way.

With the evolution of digital electronics the radio market and communication technologies have evolved a lot. Though the concept of software defined radio (SDR) is not new, in the recent years, this market has undergone many changes in terms of technology and uses. SDR is a type of radio communication system where communication is carried out by the use of software on embedded system or personal computer instead of implementing hardware such as filters, amplifiers, mixers, detectors, demodulators and modulators, among others. SDR are capable of transmitting and receiving a wide spectrum of frequency. When the data from a source is converted into digital format, the remaining activities involved in radio communications are carried out with the help of software driven automated functions.

SDR optimizes the tactical information system as embedded software used in SDR helps in the dynamic selection of the communication channel. The number of digital service users is increasing resulting into the improved adoption rate of software defined radio. Public safety, military and commercial use are the three major end-use applications of SDR systems. The demand for SDRs in expected to increase in coming years owing to efficiency and cost effectiveness offered by them. The industry has undergone transformation from analog to digital. Thus, the advance capabilities of digital radio are expected to drive the growth of SDR market. Multiple regulations govern the SDR market and this affects the market growth and trends. For instance, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) legally created a newer class for equipment of SDRs that had streamlined equipment authorization procedure.

Military modernization programs being carried out by several countries such as South Korea, India, Germany, Japan and the U.S and the interoperability provided by SDR are major driving forces for SDR market. The issues faced in the integration of the various sub systems pose a challenge to the SDR market. Further, the development of software platforms, technologies and tools, which allow flexible specification, design and implementation of radio systems, is another significant challenge. Players in software defined radio market have potential opportunity in technical advancements of SDR technology such as resolving the problem of frequency congestion, wide frequency range (spectrum) and improved broadcasting services in future.

Software defined radio market is segmented on the basis of type, end-user application and geography. On the basis of type of SDR, the market is segmented into ideal software defined radio, baseband software defined radio (BBSDR) and high frequency software defined radio (HFSDR). On the basis of end-user industry, SDR market is segmented into defense industry, telecom industry, manufacturing plants, public safety vendors and personal use. U.S. Canada, Japan, France, Brazil, South Korea, India, Germany and Italy have emerged as the leading countries for software defined radio market.

Some of the key vendors in software defined radio market are BAE Systems PLC, Elbit Systems Ltd., IndraSistemas, L3 Communications Corporation, Raytheon Co., Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co KG, Thales Group, Viasat Incorporated, SAAB AB, Rockwell Collins, Northrop Grumman Corp., ITT Corporation, Harris Corporation and Datasoft Corporation, among others.

This research report presents a comprehensive assessment of the market and contains thoughtful insights, facts, historical data and statistically-supported and industry-validated market data and projections with a suitable set of assumptions and methodology. It provides analysis and information by categories such as market segments, regions, product type and distribution channels.

# I Bought a Two-Way Radio With a Range of 25 Miles…Why Wonât It Work?

Sorry, but youâve been had. Although many manufacturers boast that their radios can reach amazing distances, this is, in almost every instance weâve encountered, a fallacy.

How is this legal, you may ask?

Essentially, your radio quite probably could work over a range of 25 miles, but that is a theoretical estimate, working on the assumption that the myriad variables that affect two-way radio signal (such as atmospheric conditions, topography, objects in the way and etc) are simply not in effect.

All of them. At the exact same time.

So, assuming that you used your two-way radio in a vacuum, where weather didnât exist and no obstacles, man-made or otherwise, were present, you would be able to communicate with someone else who was further away in that impossible vacuum, maybe even 25 miles away, but otherwise? Forget it.

The fact is that the average two-way radio has a range of between one and two miles and not much more (maybe three, but weâre not making any promises). CB radio fares significantly better, largely because it makes use of large aerials. Now, Signal-boosting equipment can be used to improve your two-wayâs performance (for example, repeaters), but such equipment is expensive and hard to obtain for legal reasons.

There are, however, a few factors that can have an affect on your radioâs range. The frequency being used, the power output, the size of the antenna, the complexity of the signal being sent, signal interference, background noise and (as we wrote earlier) objects in the way are all factors that can improve (or hamper) your efforts to get your signal to reach as far as possible.

So, talking on your radio whilst in the car will have a deleterious affect on your signal, as will deliberately walking through wooded areas or places with a lot of rocks/mountains if you can take an easier path.

However, a larger antenna (if youâre tech orientated, the antenna can be replaced with a better one â although this should only be attempted if you are

1. a) Sure about licensing laws

And

1. b) Tech savvy enough to void the warranty and not regret it later, can really add a few hundred meters to a radioâs range, as can a switch in frequencies.

Also, your choice of VHF or UHF radio will have an affect as well, a UHF signal, for example, generally penetrates buildings and objects better than a VHF signal, whereas VHF is better for outdoor use where there is a lot of open space to transmit across.

Having said/written that, even in optimum conditions, you are extremely unlikely to transmit over a distance of 25 miles. Sorry.

As an aside, mobile phones donât suffer from this lack of coverage, largely because cell towers are in place that bounce the signal from one to the other and thus carry it across a far larger area, your mobile is still your best bet to break that 25 mile mark, weâre afraid.

If you really must use radio communications over long distances, we recommend going to the Website 2 way radio online

Hope that helps.

# MIT’s new method of radio transmission could one day make wireless VR a reality

VR is the Buzz word for this year, every technology company clambering to get their headset out on to the market. Much of the market needs to catch-up though, the power of home computing needs to improve and removing the inevitable extra cabling and wires that come with current headsets. Luckily this article is about the future technology of VR headsets, see what we can expect as this technology grows.

If you want to use one of today’s major VR headsets, whether the Oculus Rift, the HTC Vive, or the PS VR, you have to accept the fact that there will be an illusion-shattering cable that tethers you to the small supercomputer that’s powering your virtual world.

But researchers from MITâs Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) may have a solution inÂ MoVr, a wireless virtual reality system. Instead of using Wi-Fi or Bluetooth to transmit data, the research teamâs MoVR system uses high-frequency millimeter wave radio to stream data from a computer to a headset wirelessly at dramatically faster speeds than traditional technology.

There have been a variety of approaches to solving this problem already. Smartphone-based headsets such asÂ Google’s Daydream ViewÂ and Samsung’s Gear VR allow for untethered VR by simply offloading the computational work directly to a phone inside the headset. Or the entire idea ofÂ VR backpacks, which allow for a more mobile VR experience by building a computer that’s more easily carried. But there are still a lot of limitations to either of these solutions.

THE MOVR PROTOTYPE SIDESTEPS TETHERED VR ISSUES

Latency is the whole reason a wireless solution hasn’t worked so far. VR is especially latency-sensitive, along with the huge bandwidth requirements that VR needs to display the level of high-resolution video required for virtual reality to work. But the MIT team claims that the millimeter wave signals can transmit fast enough to make a wireless VR headset feasible.

The issue with using millimeter wave technology is that the signal needs a direct line of sight, and fares poorly when it encounters any obstacles. MoVR gets around this by working as a programmable mirror that can direct the direction of the signal to the headset even while itâs moving to always make sure the signal is transmitting directly to the headset’s receivers.

For now, the MoVR is simply a prototype, with the team hoping to further shrink down the system to allow for multiple wireless headsets in one room without encountering signal interference. But even as a proof-of-concept, it’s an interesting perspective on how virtual reality could one day work.

# Spy Earpiece: A Micro Earpiece That Will Help You Through Presentations, Interviews, Speeches + More

When you think of a spy earpiece, the first thing that comes to mind is inspector gadget or Mission impossible, well it does for us anyway. But there are real world applications for these earpieces are wide. As this article explains, when you need a little help with prompts on a big presentation or you need to receiveÂ instructions during a lecture, then a micro earpiece could be the answer.

This device originally developed for covert operations is now made available for the public to use. Each earpiece kit can provide a way for you to transmit and receive audio information without anybody in the room knowing. Whether you want to receive pre-recorded messages or information from another party to assist you during your presentation / interview or speech, the earpiece can be set up with your phone, audio recorder, radio, or MP3 player to send the message to your earpiece , placed in your ear channel so that it is undetectable .. All kits also include a built in microphone so that you can engage in 2 way conversation should you wish

So how does it work?

The key is the inductive transmitter that will transmit audio from a phone / mp3 player to the earpiece. The transmitter itself is available in many forms. For example the transmitter may be included within a neckloop to be worn around the users neck, this may connect to your phone or mp3 player via its earphone socket. Or you may have a Bluetooth are often included in everyday objects such as a pair of glasses, a Pen or even a bluetooth watch. The transmitter acts as the aerial for reception and signal transmitter from phone to earpiece. At the same time, output sound picked up by the tiny microphone attached to the neckloop / pen / glasses is sent through your phone just as if the user is talking directly into it.

How to Use The Spy Earpiece?

Depending on what kind of information you wish to receive the earpiece can be set up to suit. For example during a presentation or speech you may wish to pre-record your speech or presentation on an mp3 player, then play it back to yourself during the presentation / speech. Or simply record a simple prompt for each point you would like to make. You could then connect up your mp3 player to an inductive neckloop included in most earpiece kits, and wear a spy earpiece. So long as the battery is inserted into the earpiece you will hear the audio from your mp3 player in the earpiece.

Each Inductive transmitter whether it be a neckloop or a bluetooth device like a pen, glasses or bluetooth neckloop, will also include a built in microphone so you can also talk back to your colleagues should you wish during your speech / presentation or interview.

Lets not forget the original intention of the Spy Earpiece which is for security and covert surveillance. The Spy Earpiece excels in these situations where the requirement is for a security operative to communicate covertly.

The key to success is in the careful planning and preparation so that everything runs smooth.

The way I see it, when the challenge is great and the results mean everything, why not try the Spy Earpiece and take the risk out of the equation?

# AXUM: THE FUTURE OF WIRELESS AUDIO

This article is the transcript of an interview with Igal Golva, CEO of Axum earphones, wireless earphones with secure fittings, designed for people doing exercise. A really interesting article about why these earphones are different to others on the market and what their plans are for the future of the company.

Mobile audio has always been a difficult balancing act. The need for great audio on the go has never been more prevalent. With smartphones now a staple for most peopleâs daily commute, exercise and fitness, the need for an audio solution that can be portable while still sounding good is the holy grail.

Apple, with the iPhone 7 has also forced peopleâs hands. The headphones they used to use are no longer as easy to pull out and plug in without the use of a dongle. This is where Bluetooth audio options come into play, and where the Axum wireless headphones are planning to make a splash. Currently on Indiegogo, the Axum are aiming to give people great audio, while ensuring they maintain that mobile, ultraportable feel. Currently at 528% funded, the Axum is proving to be a product many people want to get their hands on. We had a chance toÂ talk to Igal Golvan, CEO at Axum, about what the headphones can do for audio and fitness and how they hope to change the way people view Bluetooth audio.

CGMagazine: Could you tell us a little about what Axum does and how these new headphones stand above the competition?

Igal Golvan: First of all, we not only offer four hours playtime (while others offer 1.5-2 hours) you can also get an additional four with the portable charging case. We achieved it by eliminating any unnecessary features. We are aiming to reach fitness junkies like us that need three things: fit, sound and battery life.

Our designers made a unique design that will fit you during the most extreme sport activities. In the last months all we did was test the earphones in every sport activity you can imagine .This included cycling, running, CrossFit , snowboarding and even sky diving .

The issue with True Wireless Earbuds is that all our competitors see this product as the latest technology in the headphones industry and as such they’ve aimed the technology at early adopters. Unlike them we understand the real potential of the product to become the mainstream earbuds of athletes, as the lack of cables is something so comfortable no one can even imagine, only when doing sport activities and listening to Axum earphones will you really understand the definition of freedom!

CGM: Could you go over what M-voiDÂ® sound technology brings to the table?

IG: Sure. M-voiD stands for Multidisciplinary virtually optimized industrial Design. Itâs a technology for the realistic simulation of audio systems using CAD data. It is a sophisticated technology that paves the way to reproduce outstanding sound performance to let consumers discover that earphones deliver the emotions and excitement comparable with a concert.

Realistic and predictive simulations by means of a fully coupled multiphysical electrical-mechanical-acoustical simulation model are the heart and driving backbone of M-voiDÂ® technology.Â The major advantage of M-voiDÂ® is that acoustic problems can be identified and resolved in the virtual domain before any prototype is being built.

Sound characteristics are virtually measurable and assessable and can be optimized on the virtual model. It is not just limited to the graphical reproduction. M-voiDÂ® listens to the virtual sound of the earphone already on the computer by means of a special reproduction technique (called auralization), enabling improved sound.Â Bottom line, while even the largest companies out there can test 100 or maybe 10,000 prototypes to check and improve the sound quality before releasing the final product, we had the ability to test sound quality from over 10 million prototypes.

Besides that, Konzept-X also helped us with the driver design itself to maximize the results after we’ve changed the internal design.

CGM: With your Indigogo doing so well, do you foresee this will delay the final release?

IG: Exactly the opposite. We planned to wait until the funding period is over to head into mass production, but now that we understand the demand we’ll start doing it ASAP.

CGM: Why the choice to go with Indigogo over an option such as Kickstarter?

IG: We thought about KS, however the Indiegogo team was much more supportive and offered lots of relevant information on how to succeed with crowdfunding . We are product people and don’t understand crowdfunding, so a supportive team was something very important for us.

CGM: Do you plan to offer a retail version of these headphones?

IG: Of course, but first we’ll ship everything to our backers and then we’ll think about retail.

CGM: For the gamer on the go, will these offer anything beyond what is already in the wild?

IG: The perfect fit of Axum earbuds is something like you’ve never experienced before, you can see the bulky design of other brands such as Samsung and Motorola The last thing you want to do is wear those gigantic things all day long.

CGM: How do you think these headphones will do with the fitness crowd beyond just the music listener?

IG: We believe that beside the sound quality, the fit and comfort is something they’ll be addicted to. We noticed the reaction of the people while testing them out in the gym and we guarantee that once you try Axum earbuds you’ll never be able to use wires again!

CGM: Are there any obstacles you will need to overcome to bring these to market?

IG: Yes, there are many obstacles of unawareness from the customers. Many people are not familiar with this concept and think of it as a regular mono Bluetooth ear piece, so we are heading to a long journey of explaining our product and turning it into mainstream.

CGM: How do you feel these headphones will do with a crowded market? What sets Axum apart?

IG: We have full confidence in our product. First of all we know 100% that no matter how good your BT earbuds are, if they are not True Wireless they can’t compete with us. As for other True Wireless companies out there, based on their design they’ve never thought about athletes as their potential customers and it’s a shame as this concept is perfect for fitness and exercising. So we already have a huge advantage on them.

# Could hearing loss be a hidden cost of gaming?

Is this is a real problem? Do you use a set of headphones whilst gaming? This article has information on how damaging wearing gaming headphones is and what the future impact might be. Read this, examine how you use your headphones and get on with lifeâ¦

According to the Q1 2016 GameTrack report, 18.8 million people between the ages of 6 and 64 game and those between 11 and 64 spend an average 8.8 hours per week doing so.

Â Amongst Gamers the largest group is 15 to 24 year old males who are most at risk of permanently damaging their hearing. This group spends the most amount of time gaming and are also the most attracted to the âloudâ games. Furthermore a majority of them live in a shared accommodation and use headphones so as not to disturb others. This group also the most likely to take part in other activities which can be harmful to their hearing such as listening to music through headphones, going to gigs and festivals, and nightclubs.

Â Unfortunately the price of their enjoyment could well be significant and permanent hearing damage. Whilst there is clearly a risk to the Gamer, it could transfer as a liability to the games companies in the form of legal action relating to their duty of care.

Â The first significant step is to make Gamers aware of how much sound exposure they are experiencing and what they can do to prevent hearing damage, because hearing damage is permanent

Â Hearing damage is caused by the combination of how long you listen (time), how loud you listen (volume), and what you listen to (energy content). The combination of these three factors create a âsound doseâ, if the dose is too high it starts to damage your hearing.

Â The UNâs World Health Organisation and hearing conservation organisations are increasing awareness of the risks and advise users to restrict their daily sound dose to less than 85dB average over 8 hours.

Â Gamers who use headphones currently have no realistic way to indicate what level they are listening at and how much of their daily sound dose they have used. The answer will be to provide them with an intelligent sound dose measurement app or software, giving them their individual sound dose exposure information and guidance, with optional protection, so that for the first time they can make informed decisions about their hearing health.

# Offering workers hearing protection options

Much Like Protecting your sight or looking after your health, your hearing should also be protected, this article tackles hearing protection within the workplace and what type of earplugs are best, Enjoy.

OSHA regulations dictate we offer a âvarietyâ of hearing protectors to noise-exposed workers. What is best practice for providing a variety while keeping inventory to a minimum?

Per CFR 1910.95(i)(3), âEmployees shall be given the opportunity to select their hearing protectors from a variety of suitable hearing protectors provided by the employer.â But does âvariety of suitable hearing protectorsâ mean two or 10, earplugs or earmuffs, different colors or different sizes?

The wrong approach is to choose a variety based on factors that have no effect on protecting hearing, including the published noise reduction rating. Some safety managers offer several different large foam earplugs that are yellow, green and orange â mistakenly assuming they meet the âvarietyâ requirement and not realizing that a significant portion of their workforce will never achieve an adequate fit with a large foam earplug. In those cases, their supposed âvarietyâ actually limits the number of workers adequately protected.

This bad assumption is often codified into company safety policies that require a minimum NRR: âApproved hearing protectors must have an NRR of at least 32 decibels,â or similar criteria. By definition, that typically means a large foam earplug. Despite the higher NRR based on 10 laboratory test subjects, workers with smaller ear canals will never achieve an adequate fit with those large foam earplugs to stop noise-induced hearing loss.

What are the factors that affect good fit of an earplug?

• Size:Â Like a cork in a bottle, an earplug that is too large or too small will never achieve an acoustic seal to protect hearing. Offering a variety of sizes significantly improves the percentage of employees obtaining a good fit.
• Shape:Â Ear canal openings may appear round, oval or slit. A foam earplug often fills an oval or slit opening better than pre-molded earplugs.
• Ease of insertion:Â Some workers have difficulty rolling or inserting foam earplugs due to lack of mobility. For these workers, an earplug with a stem may be easier to insert.

Based on thousands of fit tests administered to workers in the field, the following four earplug styles provide a selection that would adequately protect nearly every worker:

• Large foam earplug
• Smaller foam earplug
• Large reusable earplug
• Smaller reusable earplug

The good news is that offering a variety does not necessarily increase cost. Buying 1,000 earplugs of one style or 250 earplugs of four different styles is fairly equivalent in cost. But the bigger variety significantly increases the probability that more workers will be adequately protected.

Many worksites adjust their inventory based on results of their fit-testing of hearing protectors. By reviewing which earplugs repeatedly provide the best fit, these companies identify the gaps or duplications in their offering and can adjust accordingly. Sometimes, this means adding a smaller-size earplug, but many times companies find they can remove some less-effective earplugs from their inventory. Itâs not necessary to carry a dozen different earplug styles.

Finally, any offering of hearing protection needs a hands-on training component. How can a workers determine whether their ear canal is large or small, round or oval? Itâs impossible to view your own ear canal opening in a mirror. A quick glance by a safety trainer can be of tremendous benefit in helping workers select the right earplug the first time.

# Hytera launches new DMR handheld radio

Hytera have a wide range of radios in their catalogue now, and this is a new addition. The PD98X is for the professional communicator, a radio that has more added extras than a lot of smart phones. A couple of questions we would like to ask are:

What will the price be?

Can I use my current Hytera earpiece with this radio?

And when will this be available?

But this does seem to be a nice addition to the Hytera range and we canât wait to try it out.

Hytera, a leading solution provider of professional mobile radio communications, has launched its latest digital mobile radio (DMR) handheld PD98X, adding another strong member to its top-notch DMR portfolio.

PD98X offers an exceptional audio experience through noise cancellation technology, while boasting new features including full duplex calls, recording capability via Micro SD, Bluetooth 4.0 for audio or data and single frequency repeater mode to increase coverage, said a statement from the company.

GS Kok, senior vice president of Hytera, said: âWe are proud to announce the launch of PD98X.â

âA series of cutting-edge innovations and designs have been added into this new model to make it a full-featured radio to satisfy customers’ increasing demand for functionality and user experience,â he said.

The addition of the PD985 positions Hytera with the most complete DMR radio portfolio to meet diversified requirements, from simple, reliable and cost-effective handsets (PD3 and PD4 series) to rugged and feature-rich solutions (PD5 and PD6 series), up to the high-end, professional system radios (PD7, PD9 and X1 series), it said.

The key advanced features of PD98X include:

â¢Full Duplex Call

PD98X enables frontline personnel to make telephony calls between other PD98X and telephones or mobile phones.

â¢Single Frequency Repeater Mode

Based on interference cancellation technology, PD98X is able to use one slot to receive a signal and another to transmit it in the same frequency using DMO mode to extend the communication distance.

â¢Built-in Bluetooth 4.0

With integrated Bluetooth 4.0, PD98X supports both audio transmit and programming via Bluetooth.

â¢Noise Cancellation and 2.5W Audio Output

Maximum 2.5W output speaker and new noise cancelling technology ensure clear and loud voice communication.

â¢IP68 Protection

PD98X complies with the highest dust and waterproof standards, to confront the harshest environments. The radio continues to function after submersion down to 2 meters for up to four hours.

â¢Smart Battery

This feature makes it easier to monitor the battery status, such as battery life time and charging time, reducing charging time dramatically.

â¢Audio Recording via Micro SD Card

PD98X supports up to a 32GB Micro SD card, to record up to 576 hours digital/analog audio.

The whole portfolio offers display and non-display, GPS and non-GPS, UHF and VHF versions, allowing customers to select the best handset for their daily operation and mission-critical scenarios,

# What Walkie Talkie Channel Should I Use

You may get confused about various types of walkie talkies on sale in the UK, or not be certain what type of walkie talkies you require, and what youâre legally allowed to use in some other countries that you plan to visit, or in your part of the world. Firstly, it is important to have in mind that any type of walkie talkie will function in any part of the world.

A walkie talkie is used on a channel that has a frequency associated with the walkie talkie. In other words, if a channel has a frequency different from that of a walkie talkie, then the two will not work together.

There are 446 license-free frequencies that can be used for leisure radios such as, Motorola talkabout, Binatone and Cobra radios. However, there are eight PMR466 frequencies or PMR466 channels that can be used.

The spacing between each of these frequencies is 12.5 kHz. As the system name suggests, PMR446 frequencies are located around 446MHz and are in the UHF segment of the radio range.

Even though they are not necessarily authorized, PMR446 frequencies are harmonized for use across European countries.

High level use of PMR446 frequencies may result in some annoying problems. However, these can be reduced or rectified by changing the frequency of the PMR446. Other systems such as DCS codes and CTCSS tone can as well help in alleviating the problems.

In view of the possible high use of the frequencies and the PMR446âs unlicensed nature, the scheme is not appropriate for individuals who need to gain access to frequencies at specific times and locations or for life use.

These are simple, short-range walkie talkies that conform to the European Union-wide PMR446 standard and can be used by any person in the United Kingdom or European Union without a license. These types of radios are commonly sold in High-Street shops as well as in most radio outlets.

Commonly known as “PMR446sâ radios that meet these standards usually have a power output of 0.5watts, meaning that their range is lower compared to the powerful business walkie talkies that are a licensed and which feature power outputs of 4-5 watts. All of them make use of the same eight channels and this causes problems sometimes if a given area has a lot of radio users using these channels.

Licensed handheld walkie talkies can have a power output of 5 watts, but “license free” PMR446 walkie talkies can only have 0.5watt power output. Therefore, the licensed walkie talkies usually have a better signal penetration and better range in buildings.

A majority of businesses prefer using a licensed 2-way walkie talkie system because, in spite of the benefits of license free walkie talkies (PMR 446), they have some downsides (like lower power, a short range and interference) which make them less effective than licensed business radio systems.

Taxi as well as other transport companies, and large sites like factories or hospitals, and businesses situated in a number of different locations are excellent examples of circumstances where a licensed radio system may be a favored option.

These situations require more powerful radios as opposed to hand-held portable walkie talkies with low frequencies . If the system of your radio relies on vehicle-mounted radios or a base station, a licensed radio system is necessary.

Ofcom

If you want start using a radio system in your business, then you will have to get a license from Ofcom. In other words, Ofcom is a company that controls who can transmit on what frequency and where, to ensure that different users donât interfere with each other.

Business radio system users range from factories and taxi companies, to industrial sites, hospitals, transport operators and care homes. To begin Ofcomâs licensing process there are a number of requirements that a business must first of all fulfil.

Ofcom license is especially important regarding official radio users like police, military, railways, air traffic control and emergency services, railways, etc. Radio systems that meet specific standards can be used without any license from Ofcom. For many walkie talkie users, license free radios will be okay. And if you are in need of a license, it isnât that expensive or complicated to get one.

The UK simple license is a license issued by Ofcom and gives holders the right to use more powerful radios. It is effectively a license to use powerful radios any place in the UK, using give frequencies which are shared by anyone using this license. This license is easy and quick to apply for, costs about Â£75 per organization, and is valid for 5 years.

It is the only option for people who need to use their radio systems anywhere in the United Kingdom, and is ideal for most business radios users.

This license provides you with specific frequencies or frequency allocated just for your organizationâs use within a given geographical area. The cost of the license varies from moderately cheap in most locations in the UK (about Â£100 annually), with the cost heightening in key cities, more so London, where the demand for radio frequencies is very high, going for up to more than Â£500 per year.

Radios that are designed to use dedicated frequencies such as this, should not be used outside of the licensed area, since the same frequency will possibly have been assigned to somebody else and you will therefore be causing interference to them.

This is a license for hire companies and radio equipment suppliers. It allows these companies to do short term radio hire via a set of frequencies allotted to radio hire companies. It also allows these companies to provide âdemoâ radio systems to potential customers and to undertake repairs to radio systems.

When these companies hire out their radio equipment, itâs hired using this license, so that the person hiring it does need to worry about licensing issues.

Summary

The importance of walkie talkies and radios in the UK and other parts of the world cannot be overlooked. Not only are these gadgets important in everyday communication, but they continue to play a very crucial role in the development of other communication tools. A lot of useful information about radios and walkie talkies has been highlighted in this article for the benefit of radio users and the public in general.

# 5 Examples of Earpiece to Hear Far Away

1. Using a Mobile Phone And Bluetooth headsets or Earpiece

To do this, you simply need to go into your mobile phone’s settings and then change answering mode to Auto; this enables your phone to answer automatically when you ring it. Most mobile phones only work in the Auto answer mode, after you have plugged in the headset.

After turning on the Bluetooth headset, make sure it’s properly paired with your cell phone, and confirm the battery has adequate charge. Hide your Bluetooth headset somewhere you know it’ll pick up the sounds clearly, however, make sure that it’s well hidden.

Leave the room, however, do not go very far. The Bluetooth connection will work through the walls, but if you happen to go far away, it’ll not work very well (the range can be up to about 30 feet or 3 rooms away). Now test your cell phone by calling it to see how far you can actually go and still get to hear the bugged room through the Bluetooth headset.

You can wait for the conversations to get to the interesting part, and then turn on voice recorder on the cell phone; it should be able to record via the microphone of your Bluetooth headset.

2. Using a Two Way Radio and Earpiece

Two way radios allow users to communicate when they’re far away such that they can not hear each other. These devices use radio frequencies instead of cell phone towers which means they will work in areas where there’s no cell phone coverage or reception.

The two way radios offer instantaneous communication; users simply need to press the Push-To-Talk (also known as PTT) key, and they can instantly talk and convey their particular message to the other party. This is due to the quick call setup time that’s entrenched in this technology. The ability to offer quick communications is one of the reasons why most organizations prefer the two way radios for their tactical and operational communications.

Another great feature of the two way radios, is the ability to facilitate one to many (also known as, group calls) communications effectively. This basically means that a single user can conveniently communicate with 2, 10, 20, and more, of other two way radio users at the same time. In short, there is no need for you to repeat time and time again when you want to communicate with many people and using a two way radio earpiece, this communication is much more secure

3. Ear Spy Application

Ear Spy App is a great eavesdropping tool. Depending on just how good your cell phone is, this app can become a very high powered listening tool. Ear Spy application can route the audio from your cell phone’s mic right to to your headset letting you eavesdrop on the people around you whilst remaining inconspicuous. When using a Bluetooth, you can use this app to spy from a room nearby; you simply need to leave your cell phone near the target, and then use your Bluetooth headset to eavesdrop. If you want to fine tune the incoming signals, you can use the graphics audio equalizer. Whether you wish to eavesdrop on particular conversations or you just want to play some spy games, Ear Spy application will be of great help in your endeavor. You should know that this app requires you to use headphones, otherwise you will get poor audio feedback.

4. Spy Glasses

This spy device comprises of an in built Bluetooth transmitter which looks like ordinary glasses, a microphone and a wireless earpiece. Connections between the glasses, the earpiece and your cell phone are wireless, thus totally unnoticeable to other people; the device’s ultra compact design basically ensures nobody will know it is a spy tool. Spy glasses are compatible with almost any mobile phone which has the Bluetooth option. Actually, the Spy glasses are universally compatible with all the standard Bluetooth enabled equipment including computers. Some of the features of this device include; excellent transmission and reception of audio signals, built in microphone, and a large capacity Lithium battery.

5. Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs)

Modern technological advances are ever increasing human’s potential for developing tiny things. As for the United States Air Force, this translates to revolutionary designs in the air vehicles to provide the war fighters with new tools which can enhance both the situational awareness, and also the capacity of engaging quickly, accurately, and with minimal collateral damage. This is where Micro Air Vehicles (also known as MAVs) come in. The term MAV or micro air vehicle, refers to the a new type of advanced remotely controlled aircraft (abbreviated as, UAV) that’s significantly much smaller than other similar aircraft. Typically, MAVs can easily blend in with the surrounding environment, stay in air for a long period of time, and can go places which can’t be reached safely by humans, or most of the other types surveillance equipment.

The target dimensions for MAVs is approximately 6 inches (15 centimeters), and the development of actual insect sized aircrafts is expected in near future. As a matter of fact, various efforts in the research on micro air vehicles have involved attempting to mimic flying insects so as to achieve the flight capabilities which aren’t attainable through the use of other means of aerial propulsion. In the year 2007, a bug like Micro air vehicle model with a wingspan of 3 cm was revealed at a robotic’s conference; in the year 2008, the United States Air Force released a video showing Micro air vehicles which were the size of a bumblebee; and in the year 2012, some engineers from Johns Hopkins University started studying flight of butterflies to discover how airborne robots can mimic their maneuvers.

The potential military use is 1 of the key driving factors, although the micro air vehicle can also be used commercially, as well as in scientific and mapping applications. The main military use envisioned for the micro air vehicle is gathering of intelligence via the use of microphones, cameras, or other types of sensor.

Conclusion

Some of the above points are illegal, and you should not do any of them. Also, do not use any of the above methods to record any intimate relations; the legal consequences of doing so are very severe. Finally, keep in mind that it’s illegal in the US to make recordings of people without their consent/permission; and depending on what you’ll do with the recordings, you might find yourself in big trouble.

# Where To Purchase a Walkie Talkie Headset

Walkie talkies are widely used in almost any setting where the portable radio communication is necessary, including but not limited to; loud environments, in forests, in airports, when hunting, in airports, hiking and other outdoor recreation, among others. The units come in handy in situations where many people need to listen, and only 1 needs to talk at a go, for instance, when giving instructions to workers on a camping site. In other words, Walkie talkies are a great communication tools to have, regardless of whether you’re using them for fun, at home, or at work, to help in facilitating things to run smoothly. That being so, they have one major limitation, and that’s the fact that they’re hand held devices which you’ve to carry with you at all times, and handle whenever you want to communicate. If both of your hands are full, then that can be very inconvenient. Fortunately however, today, there lots of accessories you can use, such as the Walkie talkie headset, which frees up your hands, thus allowing you to talk or communicate with much ease. Moreover nothing helps enhance the audio quality of the Walkie Talkie more than the headset.

To use the headset, you simply need to plug it into the Walkie talkie, and then you can leave the unit clipped onto your belt. The headset will allow you to not only hear clearly, but it also helps in cancelling out noise from your surroundings or environment. The boom mic of the headset allows you to talk directly into the Walkie talkie without having to hold the device up near your mouth.

Walkie talkies don’t use the same types of connectors for attaching the speakers, earpiece/microphones or headsets. Today, there are many different connector types available on the market. Even different Walkie talkie models from the same company might have different connector types. Actually, just because 2 different radios have a same physical connection socket, doesn’t always mean that they’re internally wired up the same way; this means that you should never assume that having the same socket means similar accessories will work in both Walkie talkies. So always be careful when choosing the connectors for your radios.

Active vs Passive

The Active Walkie talkie headsets normally manage the ambient sound that’s around it, and send a similar frequency to unwanted sounds to cancel it out; this increases the sounds to noise ratio of unwanted sounds, eventually cancelling the noise out. The Passive Walkie talkie headsets rely on the insulated or the sound absorbent material to muffle the sounds; this is a cheaper option which only protect ups to a certain decibel level.

Conclusion

Today, there is a wide range of walkie talkie headsets to choose from. Your choice should depend on your particular needs, however, you should also make sure you choose one which will work great in your particular ambiance. If you are looking to buy a Walkie talkie headset, contact Headsetonline .co.uk today, and we will gladly provide you with the perfect unit geared to meet each and every one of your needs.

# A review of the Icom IC-7300 direct RF sampling transceiver

Icom and ham radio go hand-in-hand, one of their main markets is supplying top of the range equipment, this IC-7300 follows on from the wonderful IC-F7200 (which is a favourite in the office) and sits along side the new range of digital IC-F1000 & 2000 radios that are going really well, but have a new connector type, so new Icom radio earpieces are needed. Read the comprehensive review we found from theÂ swling.com website.

In August 2015 at the Tokyo Hamfair, Icom debuted a new type of transceiver in their product lineââone featuring a direct RF sampling receiver. Essentially, it was an SDRtabletopÂ transceiver.

At about the same time that the IC-7300 started shipping around the world, Icom pulled their venerable IC-7200 off the market. Yet the IC-7200 was established as a well-loved product,Â due toÂ itsÂ highly sensitive receiver, its relatively robust front end, and its quality audio. Moreover, itÂ was simple to operate, which made superbÂ as aÂ Field Day or radio club rig.

Therefore,Â even though the IC-7300 promised much more versatility than the IC-7200, for its price point it had a tough act to follow.

So, of courseââevenÂ more so than with any other radio Icom has introduced in the past few yearsââI was eager to get my hands on aÂ IC-7300. Â Iâm very fortunate that my good friend, Dave Anderson (K4SV) was one of the first purchasers of the IC-7300, and that he didnât mind (after only having the rig perhaps one week!)Â allowing me to borrow it for a severalÂ weeks forÂ evaluation.

Note: Â I should state here that since this rig was loaned to me, I evaluated itÂ based on the firmware version it shipped with, and made no modifications to it.

This review primarily focuses on the receiverâs performance, functionality and usability.

Introducing the Icom IC-7300

In recent years, the âbig threeâ ham radio manufacturers have been using color displays,Â andââIcom most especiallyââtouch screens. While Iâm no fan of backlit touch screens in mobile applications, I Â think touch screen displays make a lot of sense in a base radio. If carefully designed, a touch screen can save an operator from heavily-buried menus and decrease the number of multi-function buttons on the front panel.

The challenge, of course, is making a display with intuitive controls, and one that is large enough, and with sufficientÂ resolution, to be useful to the operator. In the past, Iâve been disappointed by many displays; the most successful have been incorporated in DX/Contest-class (i.e., pricier) transceivers, meanwhile, entry-level and mid-priced transceiver displays often seem half-baked. WhileÂ the graphics may beÂ crisp, spectrum displays at this price point are often too compressed to be useful, and if not a touch display,Â force the user to pause operation in order to find the correct knob or button to change settings. In suchÂ cases, I find myself wonderingÂ why the manufacturer went to the expense of a color display at allââ?

But what about theÂ C-7300 display? Â Iâm thoroughly pleasedÂ to reportÂ that Icom did afantasticjob of balancing utility and function in design of the IC-7300âs color touch display and front panel. There are Â number of ways you can chose to display and arrange elements on the screenâsince Iâm an SDR fan, I typically chose a display setting which gave the waterfall the most real estate. Of course, one can chose to give the frequency display priority or a number of other arrangements.

User interface

I can tell that Icom built upon their experience with the IC-7100ââtheir first entry-level touch screen display transceiver.

I was able to get the IC-7300 on the air in very little time. Within five minutes of turning on the IC-7300, I was ableÂ to:

• change the display to feature a spectrum waterfall;
• change the span of the waterfall display;
• adjust the TX power output;
• change the filters selection and the transmit mode;
• change bands and make direct-frequency entries;
• adjust notch, passband, and filter width;
• adjust AF and RF gain;
• set A/B VFOs and operate split;
• change AGC settings;
• turn on Noise Reduction/Noise Blanker, and

Basically, I found that all the essential functions are clearly laid out, accessible, and highly functional. Â Impressive.

The IC-7300 ships with a manualââ aptly titled, the âBasicâ manualââand a CD with the full and unabridged operations manual. Â The Basic Manual covers a great dealÂ a lot more than the manual which accompanied theÂ Icom ID-51a. If you read through the manual, youâll readilyÂ familiarize yourself withÂ most of the IC-7300âs higher function operations,Â and especially, youâll be able to adjust the settings to your operation style. The Manual is written in simple language, and includes a lot of diagrams and graphics.

If youâre like me, you will find youâll also need to reference that unabridged manual, so hang on to the CD, too.

Still, I imagine thereâs a large percentage of future IC-7300 owners that will never need to reference the manualââespecially if they donât care about tweaking band edges or similar settings. Yes, believe it or not, itâs that easy to use.

Operation

While I spent a great deal of time listening to CW and SSB in various band conditions and at various times of day, I spent less time on the air transmitting.

With that said, all of my transmitting time was in CW since the IC-7300 mic was accidentally left outÂ when my friendÂ loanedÂ me the rig.

Iâm please to report that CW operation is quite pleasant. All of the adjustmentsââRF Power, Key Speed, and CW Pitchââcan be quickly modifiedÂ using the multi-function knob. While in CW mode, you can also toggle full break-in mode,Â which is quite smooth,Â via the function button and touch screen.

SSB functions are similar. While in Â SSB mode, the multi-function knob allows you to change the tx power, mic gain, and monitor level. The function button opens an on-screen menu with VOX, compression, TBW, and the monitor toggle.

Hereâs a short video I made with my phone while I made a few adjustments to the IC-7300:

Of course, my smartphonesâs microphone canât accurately reproduce the audio from the IC-7300, but you probably get the idea.

The only annoyance I notedââand perhaps Iâm more sensitive to this, being primarilyÂ a QRPerââis that the 7300âs cooling fan starts up each timeÂ you key up. It even comes on when transmit power is at its lowest setting. I find this a little distracting in CW. Â Fortunately, however, the 7300âs fan is fairlyÂ quiet and operates smoothly.

Since our radio comparison shoot-outs have been particularlyÂ popular (and useful; check out our shoot-out between top portables, andÂ ultra-compact radios, and others), I decided it would make sense to inviteÂ our informedÂ readership to evaluate the Icom IC-7300âsÂ performance in a series of blind, informal tests. (For information about these surveys,please read the first survey.)

Below, Iâve matched the labels (Radio A/Radio B) with the radio models. Â Iâve also included pie charts which show the results from the survey.

# Icom IC-7300 vs. WinRadio Excalibur

Weak Signal CW (40 meter band)

Based on listener comments, those of you who preferred the â7300Â did so because the CW was more interpretable and stable.

Some of you noted that I didnât quite have CW at the same pitch on both rigs. I believe this is because the IC-7300âs calibration was ever soÂ slightly off. This has since been addressed.

Weak/Strong SSB QSO (40 meter band)

This result was almost tied. The Excaliburâs audioââwithout any adjustmentsââhas a fuller and âbassierâ sound. The â7300 can be adjusted to have similar characteristics,Â but the default EQ settings produce very flat audio. Many of you commented that the IC-7300 more faithfully produced audio optimized for SSB.

The following recordings were made on the 31 meter broadcastÂ band in the evening. Both radios had the same filter width: 9 kHz and 8.2 kHz.

Weak Shortwave AM (Radio Bandeirantes 31 meter band)

There was a noticeable preference for the WinRadio Excalibur in this particular audio set. Even though the Excaliburâs audio splattered a bit, the content was more interpretable. The IC-7300âs audio sounded flat in comparisonââagain, something that can be adjusted quite easily in the â7300âs audio settings.

Strong Shortwave AM (Radio Romania International, French 31 Meter Band)

Once again, the Excalibur won favor, but I imagine results would have been closer had I adjusted the â7300âs audio EQ.

Note that the following mediumwave recordings were made during the morning hours (grayline). The strong station is the closest AM broadcaster to my home;Â itâs not a blow-torch âClass Aâ type station, merely the closest local broadcaster.

In the âweakâ sample, IÂ tuned to 630 kHz where multiple broadcasters could be heard on frequency,Â but one was dominant.

Both radios are set to a filter width of 9.0 kHz.

Strong Mediumwave AM (1010 kHz)

Two out of three listeners preferred the Excalibur in this example.

Weak Mediumwave AM (630 kHz)

In this particular example, the IC-7300 could not pull the strongest broadcaster out of the pile as well as the WinRadio Excalibur. In fairness, the Excalibur was using AM sync detection,Â something the IC-7300 lacks.

# Icom IC-7300 vs. Elecraft KX3

I also decided to pit the IC-7300 against my well-loved Elecraft KX3.

Audio Clip 1: CW (20 meter band)

Based on comments, readers who preferred the IC-7300 felt the CW sounded more pleasant and stable.

Audio Clip 2: Weak Signal CW (20 meter band)

Your comments indicatedÂ that the CW seemed to âpop outâ of the noise slightly better withÂ the IC-7300.

Audio Clip 3: Weak/Strong SSB

(Sable IslandÂ working Asia/Pacific onÂ 20 meter band)

These results were spilt in the middle. Again, I believe this comesÂ down to personal preference in theÂ audio. And againââin both radiosââthe audio EQ can be adjusted to suit the operator.

I enjoy producing audio clips for readers to compareÂ and comment upon. Each time Iâve done so in the past, Iâve had listeners argue the virtues of a particular audio clip while others have the complete opposite reaction to that same clip. Not all of us prefer our audio served up in the same way. No doubt, thereâs a great deal ofÂ subjectivity in this sort of test.

Iâve had the IC-7300 on the air every day since I took possession of it. Iâve listened to SSB, CW, and lots of AM/SW broadcasters.

And hereâs my summary: the IC-7300 is an excellent receiver. It has a low noise floor, superb sensitivity and excellent selectivity. I even slightly prefer its audio to that of my Elecraft KX3,Â and Iâm a huge fan of the little KX3.

Iâve written before about how difficult it is to compare SDRs;Â the problem is that there are so many ways to tweak your audio, filters, AGC, noise reduction, etc. that itâs hard to compare apples with apples.

In the audio samples above, the IC-7300 and WinRadio Excalibur were both set to their default audio settings. In SSB and CW, the IC-7300 excels, in my opinion. CW seems to pop out of the noise better and SSB is more pleasant and interpretable. The Excalibur has a better audio profile for AM broadcasters, though. Its default audio simply sounds fullerâmore robust.

The audio from the IC-7300 on AM sounded absolutely flat. However, if I tweak the audio of the â7300, adding more bass, it instantlyÂ sounds more like a dedicated tabletop receiver.

I should also mention that while the IC-7300âs built-in digital recording is a fantastic and effective feature, it doesnât produce audio true to whatâsÂ heard through headphones live. This is especially the case when you add more bass and treble response as in the RRI example above. When the audio EQ is set to a default flat, itâs quiteÂ accurate.

To be clear: Â for broadcast listening, Iâll still reach for my SDRs (the Excalibur, FDM-S2,TitanSDRand CR-1a).

If, however, I have limited space and/or budget for multiple receivers, Iâd be quite happy using the IC-7300 as a broadcast receiver on the HF bands.

Speaking from theÂ Shortwave Radio Listener (SWL) perspective, meanwhile, am IÂ pleased with how the â7300 handles the broadcast bands? Â Most definitely.

In short: Â the IC-7300 seems to have some of the best all-around receiver qualities of any transceiver I know under \$2,000.

# Summary

Every radio has its pros and cons. When I begin a review of a radio, I take notes of my initial impressions. Hereâs my list forÂ the IC-7300:

Pros

• Excellent sensitivity and selectivity
• Excellent, highly-customizable RX and TX audio
• Color touch screen interface
• Spectrum display is large enough to be useful
• Intuitive functions
• Twin PBT is both intuitive to operate and effective
• Effective RF gain to compensate for noisy band conditions
• Built-in RX and TX recording, file transfers via common SD card
• Front panel knobs and buttons are spaced appropriately and easy to use
• Quiet cooling fan (see con)
• Decodes RTTY on screen
• Built-in ATU
• Antenna analyzer function (not tested)

Cons

• Lacks secondary receive antenna jack on rear panel
• Cooling fan immediately starts upÂ on CW/SSB transmit at any power setting (see pro regarding fan noise)
• Occasionally you mayÂ get lost in deeper customized functions
• Supplied printed basic ownerâs manual, while well-written, doesnât fully cover the IC-7300s functions and options; you must explore the digital ownerâs manual in supplied CD.

Conclusion

In a nutshell: Icom has hit a home run with the IC-7300. Â If I didnât already have an Elecraft KX3 and K2, I would buy the IC-7300 without hesitation.

Though the price point is a little high for an âentry level transceiver,â itâs worth every penny, in my opinion. For \$1500 US, you get a fantastic general-coverage transceiver with an intuitive interface, nearly every function you can imagine, and performance that would please even a seasoned DXer.

Though I havenât done and A/B comparison with the IC-7200, I imagine the IC-7300 would prevail in a test. The IC-7300 would certainly wipe the floor with itâs more economical brother, the IC-718.

In my view, the IC-7300 has the makings ofÂ an excellent radio club rig in whichÂ performance, functionality, as well as ease of use are important. I expect that the IC-7300 will not only cope very well with crowded and crazy Field Day conditions, but it will also give any newcomers to the hobby a little experience with a proper modern transceiver. The fact that you can viewÂ signals so easily on the spectrum display means that it will be easier to chase contacts and monitor bands as they open and close. Indeed, what better way to mentor a newly-minted ham in modes, contacts, carriers, QRN, QRM, and so forth,Â than to simply pointÂ theseÂ out on the IC-7300âs bright,Â clearÂ displayââ?

If your club is considering a transceiver upgrade or purchase, do seriously consider the IC-7300. I think youâll find this rig isÂ up to the task.

And for home? The Icom IC-7300 may be all of the rig youâll ever need.

# Hytera to Supply Critical Communication Systems to EU delegations Worldwide

Hytera are truly making huge waves in the two way radio market and thisÂ acquisitionÂ on Motorolas home turf is remarkable. An insider has told us that this tender was won through a lot of hard work and attention to detail. Hytera are growing rapidly, we have heard from one source at Earpieceonline that their Hytera earpieces are out selling theirÂ MotorolaÂ equivalentsÂ this year.

The Professional Mobile Radio expert from Germany, Hytera Mobilfunk GmbH, is awarded with the tender to supply EU delegations worldwide with radio communication networks based on multiple technologies.

Hytera Mobilfunk GmbH confirms the successful conclusion of the negotiations with the European External Action Service (EEAS) over a framework contract for radio communication networks in EU delegations.

The contract is to run for the next four years and implies a supply of multiple critical communications systems, for local and long distance communications. Next to that, Hytera will also be responsible for the installation, updating, replacement, repair and maintenance of those networks. Additionally there will be a technical support for the EU delegations and headquarters of the EEAS.

Matthias Klausing, CEO of Hytera Mobilfunk in Germany âIÂ´m proud and honoured by the trust the EEAS puts in us as a company. And IÂ´m looking forward to a good and constructive cooperation.â

# Scientists Astounded as Four Legged Fossil Snake Turns up In Museum

A unique species of early cretaceous snake â unique in that it apparently had four functioning limbs â has been discovered in the BÃ¼rgermeister MÃ¼ller Museum in Solnhofen, Germany this month.

The discovery was made by Dr. David Martill of the University of Portsmouth, who was showing a group of students through the museumâs collection when he noticed the specimenâs remarkable attributes.

The snake, which measured about 15 centimetres from nose to tail, is thought to have been a carnivore (a fact borne out by the bones of smaller animals preserved in its stomach) and probably hunted via constriction, like many of todayâs snakes. Experts believe that it may even have used its limbs to aid in the process.

Built for burrowing (an activity which likely would not have included its limbs in any significant way), this new discovery lends credence to the scientists who argue for snake evolution occurring on land, as opposed to in the sea.

Fossil snakes with stunted hind limbs are known to palaeontologists â and even todayâs boas and pythons have a small pair of spurs where their hind limbs are thought to have once been. However, no snake, extinct or extant, has ever been discovered with four limbs.

Appropriately enough, Dr. Martill named the creature Tetrapodophis, meaning âfour-legged snakeâ.

However, some experts are not convinced. In our vibrant, ecologically diverse world, there are a great many species of legless lizards that are not true snakes. European slow worms, for example, are snake-like in aspect, but they are lizards, not snakes. Another example would be the Mexican Bipedidae family, which are serpentine in appearance, but which retain a pair of fully functioning forelimbs.

âIs it even a snake? I honestly donât think so,â said the University of Albertaâs Dr. Michael Caldwell, an expert in snake evolution, to National Geographic.comâs Ed Yong. According to Caldwell and a growing number of other critics, Tetrapodophis lacks certain distinctive features in the spine and the skull that would label it a snake. The fact that this is the only known specimen in the world and that the skull is only partially preserved will probably see the debate continue until such time as a complete specimen is unearthed.

But Dr. Martill is insistent that his discovery is a snake. Speaking to National Geographic, he pointed out the specimenâs backwards-pointing teeth, single row of belly scales, the connections between the vertebrae and the shortness of the animalâs tail after the hip â all of which suggest snake to the educated observer. Of course, many legless lizards also feature these traits, but none has all of them. This means that even if the animal has been mis-identified, it is still totally unique to science.

Even more mysterious are the origins of the fossil itself, which contains the rather distinctive characteristics indicative of the Crato formation in Brazil. Discounting for a second that this is quite possibly the earliest fossil snake known to have emerged from South America, question marks have been raised regarding how the specimen could have made it to Germany when the trade of such artefacts is illegal under Brazilian law.

Since 1942, it has been illegal for any unlicensed person to dig for fossils in Brazil without first gaining permission from the Brazilian National Department of Mineral Production (DNPM). Last year, a number of people were prosecuted (where they faced a maximum sentence of 20 years in prison) for the illegal export of Brazilian fossils to museums in Germany and Great Britain. Odds are that Brazilian authorities, as well as the scientific community in general, will be looking into the origins of such an important find with great interest.